كتاب ATLAS OF HUMAN SKELETALكتب اللياقة البدنية والصحة العامة

كتاب ATLAS OF HUMAN SKELETAL

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تريد دخول عالم كمال الأجسام و لا تعرف من أين تبدأ؟ لا تقلق، في هذه الكتب  ستكتشف كل ما تريده لبداية تمارين كمال الأجسام والاغذية الهامة لبناء وتضخيم العضلات و احتراف هذه الرياضة بنفسك


showing:
1. cranium
2. atlas vertebra
3. axis vertebra
4. clavicle
5. thoracic vertebra
6. humerus
7. pelvic bone
8. lumbar vertebra
9. cervical vertebra
10. radius bone
11. ulna bone
12. scaphoid bone
13. metacarpal bones
14. phalanges of the fingers
15. saddle joint of the thumb
16. sacral vertebrae
17. coccys vertebra
18. head of femur
19. femur bone
20. patella
21. tibia bone
22. fibula bone
23. metatarsal-phalangeal joint
24. calcaneus bone
Illustration provided by: Rolin Graphics


 In this chapter we will introduce the  bones of skull and their topographic relations to each other. With the exception of
 Mandibula
 (the lower jaw), each skull- bone is connected by tight immovable joints to the bones of the neighborhood. The areas of contact between two bones are called sutures (
Suturae
), which represent thin junctions between the irregular interlocking edges of adjacent skull bones. In adults
Suturae
 consist of tight connective tissue. We will use many different views in this chapter to show all skull structures. To understand the views it is important to know, which position or orientation is defined as the standard. To set up a standard nomenclature for orientations of skulls in anatomy a horizontal plane was defined in Frankfort more than hundred years ago. The
 Frankfort Horizontal plane
 is defined by tree points: the bottom margin of the left eye cavity and the top margins of the external auditory  porus (see chapter 2.6. Os temporale) on both sides. Fig. 2.4.: Frankfort horizontal plane The standard anatomic perspectives are  parallel or perpendicular to this (Frankfort Horizontal) plane. Perspective Explanation  Norma frontalis View at the frontal outer surface of skull  Norma occipitalis View at the back (posterior) outer surface of skull  Norma lateralis View at the left or right outer surface of skull from side  Norma verticalis View at the top outer surface of skull  Norma basalis View at the inferior outer surface of skull Fig. 2.5.: Standard perspectives To describe all skull structures, it is also important to make some cuts through the skull and make the inner  parts visible. In this chapter we will use the standard perspectives and additional views to show most skull structures. We will focus on major and important structures to show their topographic relations to each other. Following the
Suturae
 as borders and using the knowledge of this chapter’s topography it should be easy for you to learn and to describe all bones of skull. For more detailed descriptions see the following chapters which deal with separate skull bones.
FH

 
 ATLAS OF HUMAN SKELETAL ANATOMY

J.ARTNER ET AL. 2002, WWW.JURAJARTNER.COM 5PAGE
Front view (
 Norma frontalis
) of the skull shows the bones of the facial skull (
Viscerocranium
) and the frontal  bone (
Os frontale
), which already  belongs to the
 Neurocranium
, at the top: The most prominent structures in this view are the frontal bone (
Os frontale
) at the top, the zygomatic arches laterally, the mandible (the lower jaw,
 Mandibula
) at the bottom, both orbital excavations (
Orbitae
) below the frontal  bone, the anterior nasal aperture (
 Apertura nasalis anterior 
,
 Apertura  piriformis
) located in the middle line  between both orbital cavities, and the dentition, which belongs to the upper (
 Maxilla
) and the lower jaw (
 Mandibula
). The frontal bone
 
(
Os frontale
) articulates downwards (on both sides) with the nasal bones (
Ossa nasalia,  sing. Os nasale
), more lateral with
 Maxillae
, the lacrimal bones (
Ossa lacrimalia, sing.
 
Os lacrimale
) and with the zygomatic bones (
Ossa  zygomatica, sing.
 
Os zygomaticum
).
Os frontale
 and
Ossa nasalia
 are  joined to one another by the almost horizontal frontonasal suture (
Sutura  frontonasalis
). The frontomaxillar suture (
Sutura frontomaxillaris
) unites the upper jaw (Maxilla) with the frontal bone on both sides of the frontonasal connection (suture). The lateral arched parts of
Os frontale
 have contact to
Os zygomaticum
. Both  bones form together with the upper  parts of
 Maxilla
 the exterior margins of the eye cavity (orbital cavity or
Orbita
) on both sides (see Fig.2.7.: Orbita). To avoid an information overload we will describe the orbital structures later in separate illustrations. At this moment it is only important to note, that the above mentioned bones extend into the orbital interior, where they form in complex connections with four other bones (Os lacrimale, Os ethmoidale, Os sphenoidale, Os  palatinum) the pyramidal orbital cavities. Fig. 2.6.: Norma frontalis of skull Os frontale (1), Os nasale (2), Maxilla (3), Os zygomaticum (4), Mandibula (5), Orbita (6), Apertura nasalis ant. (7) The two nasal bones which form the  bony bridge of the nose are united by the vertical internasal suture (
Sutura internasalis
) in the midline. The anterior nasal aperture (
 Apertura nasalis anterior
or 
 Apertura  piriformis
) is located approximately in the middle of the facial cranium, below  both nasal bones (
Ossa nasalia
) and  between both
 Maxillae
. Divided in the middle by the nasal septum it forms the entrance into the bony nasal cavity with visible nasal shells (
Conchae
) and nasal septum (
Septum nasi
) within. The upper row of dentition (teeth)  belongs to both
 Maxillae
, which are separated by
Sutura intermaxillaris
 under the nasal aperture. The lower row of dentition belongs to the lower  jaw (
 Mandibula
), which is the only movable bone of skull (if the small auditory ossicles of the middle- ear are not counted).
1 2 3 4 5 6 7


 
 ATLAS OF HUMAN SKELETAL ANATOMY

J.ARTNER ET AL. 2002, WWW.JURAJARTNER.COM 6PAGE
Fig. 2.7.: Left Orbita Os frontale (1), Maxilla (2) and Os zygomaticum (3) form the exterior margins, with Sutura frontomaxillaris (a), frontozygomatica (b) and zygo-maticomaxillaris (c) between them. Parts of Os sphenoidale (4), Os lacrimale (6), Os palatinum (7) and Os ethmoidale (5) form together with the already described bones the bottom of Orbita, separated by Sutura frontoethmoidalis (e), sphenofrontalis (d), sphenozygomatica (f), zygo-maticomaxillaris (c), ethmoido-maxillaris, frontolacrimalis, palato-maxillaris and palatoethmoidalis. Two large apertures can be seen at the  bottom of the orbital cavity: Fissura orbitalis superior (Fs) connects the orbital cavity with the internal cranial cavity, passed by Nervus ophthalmicus, occulomotorius, trochlearis, Nervus abducens and Vena ophthalmica superior. Fissura orbitalis inferior (Fi), located between Os sphenoidale and the upper orbital part of Maxilla is passed by Nervus zygomaticus, Nervus infraorbitalis and their corresponding vessels

وصف الكتاب : this image shows the skeleton of our body (the bones that forms and supports our body) showing: 1. cranium 2. atlas vertebra 3. axis vertebra 4. clavicle 5. thoracic vertebra 6. humerus 7. pelvic bone 8. lumbar vertebra 9. cervical vertebra 10. radius bone 11. ulna bone 12. scaphoid bone 13. metacarpal bones 14. phalanges of the fingers 15. saddle joint of the thumb 16. sacral vertebrae 17. coccys vertebra 18. head of femur 19. femur bone 20. patella 21. tibia bone 22. fibula bone 23. metatarsal-phalangeal joint 24. calcaneus bone Illustration provided by: Rolin Graphics In this chapter we will introduce the bones of skull and their topographic relations to each other. With the exception of Mandibula (the lower jaw), each skull- bone is connected by tight immovable joints to the bones of the neighborhood. The areas of contact between two bones are called sutures ( Suturae ), which represent thin junctions between the irregular interlocking edges of adjacent skull bones. In adults Suturae consist of tight connective tissue. We will use many different views in this chapter to show all skull structures. To understand the views it is important to know, which position or orientation is defined as the standard. To set up a standard nomenclature for orientations of skulls in anatomy a horizontal plane was defined in Frankfort more than hundred years ago. The Frankfort Horizontal plane is defined by tree points: the bottom margin of the left eye cavity and the top margins of the external auditory porus (see chapter 2.6. Os temporale) on both sides. Fig. 2.4.: Frankfort horizontal plane The standard anatomic perspectives are parallel or perpendicular to this (Frankfort Horizontal) plane. Perspective Explanation Norma frontalis View at the frontal outer surface of skull Norma occipitalis View at the back (posterior) outer surface of skull Norma lateralis View at the left or right outer surface of skull from side Norma verticalis View at the top outer surface of skull Norma basalis View at the inferior outer surface of skull Fig. 2.5.: Standard perspectives To describe all skull structures, it is also important to make some cuts through the skull and make the inner parts visible. In this chapter we will use the standard perspectives and additional views to show most skull structures. We will focus on major and important structures to show their topographic relations to each other. Following the Suturae as borders and using the knowledge of this chapter’s topography it should be easy for you to learn and to describe all bones of skull. For more detailed descriptions see the following chapters which deal with separate skull bones. FH ATLAS OF HUMAN SKELETAL ANATOMY  J.ARTNER ET AL. 2002, WWW.JURAJARTNER.COM 5PAGE Front view ( Norma frontalis ) of the skull shows the bones of the facial skull ( Viscerocranium ) and the frontal bone ( Os frontale ), which already belongs to the Neurocranium , at the top: The most prominent structures in this view are the frontal bone ( Os frontale ) at the top, the zygomatic arches laterally, the mandible (the lower jaw, Mandibula ) at the bottom, both orbital excavations ( Orbitae ) below the frontal bone, the anterior nasal aperture ( Apertura nasalis anterior , Apertura piriformis ) located in the middle line between both orbital cavities, and the dentition, which belongs to the upper ( Maxilla ) and the lower jaw ( Mandibula ). The frontal bone ( Os frontale ) articulates downwards (on both sides) with the nasal bones ( Ossa nasalia, sing. Os nasale ), more lateral with Maxillae , the lacrimal bones ( Ossa lacrimalia, sing. Os lacrimale ) and with the zygomatic bones ( Ossa zygomatica, sing. Os zygomaticum ). Os frontale and Ossa nasalia are joined to one another by the almost horizontal frontonasal suture ( Sutura frontonasalis ). The frontomaxillar suture ( Sutura frontomaxillaris ) unites the upper jaw (Maxilla) with the frontal bone on both sides of the frontonasal connection (suture). The lateral arched parts of Os frontale have contact to Os zygomaticum . Both bones form together with the upper parts of Maxilla the exterior margins of the eye cavity (orbital cavity or Orbita ) on both sides (see Fig.2.7.: Orbita). To avoid an information overload we will describe the orbital structures later in separate illustrations. At this moment it is only important to note, that the above mentioned bones extend into the orbital interior, where they form in complex connections with four other bones (Os lacrimale, Os ethmoidale, Os sphenoidale, Os palatinum) the pyramidal orbital cavities. Fig. 2.6.: Norma frontalis of skull Os frontale (1), Os nasale (2), Maxilla (3), Os zygomaticum (4), Mandibula (5), Orbita (6), Apertura nasalis ant. (7) The two nasal bones which form the bony bridge of the nose are united by the vertical internasal suture ( Sutura internasalis ) in the midline. The anterior nasal aperture ( Apertura nasalis anterior or Apertura piriformis ) is located approximately in the middle of the facial cranium, below both nasal bones ( Ossa nasalia ) and between both Maxillae . Divided in the middle by the nasal septum it forms the entrance into the bony nasal cavity with visible nasal shells ( Conchae ) and nasal septum ( Septum nasi ) within. The upper row of dentition (teeth) belongs to both Maxillae , which are separated by Sutura intermaxillaris under the nasal aperture. The lower row of dentition belongs to the lower jaw ( Mandibula ), which is the only movable bone of skull (if the small auditory ossicles of the middle- ear are not counted). 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 ATLAS OF HUMAN SKELETAL ANATOMY  J.ARTNER ET AL. 2002, WWW.JURAJARTNER.COM 6PAGE Fig. 2.7.: Left Orbita Os frontale (1), Maxilla (2) and Os zygomaticum (3) form the exterior margins, with Sutura frontomaxillaris (a), frontozygomatica (b) and zygo-maticomaxillaris (c) between them. Parts of Os sphenoidale (4), Os lacrimale (6), Os palatinum (7) and Os ethmoidale (5) form together with the already described bones the bottom of Orbita, separated by Sutura frontoethmoidalis (e), sphenofrontalis (d), sphenozygomatica (f), zygo-maticomaxillaris (c), ethmoido-maxillaris, frontolacrimalis, palato-maxillaris and palatoethmoidalis. Two large apertures can be seen at the bottom of the orbital cavity: Fissura orbitalis superior (Fs) connects the orbital cavity with the internal cranial cavity, passed by Nervus ophthalmicus, occulomotorius, trochlearis, Nervus abducens and Vena ophthalmica superior. Fissura orbitalis inferior (Fi), located between Os sphenoidale and the upper orbital part of Maxilla is passed by Nervus zygomaticus, Nervus infraorbitalis and their corresponding vessels
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تريد دخول عالم كمال الأجسام و لا تعرف من أين تبدأ؟ لا تقلق، في هذه الكتب  ستكتشف كل ما تريده لبداية تمارين كمال الأجسام والاغذية الهامة لبناء وتضخيم العضلات و احتراف هذه الرياضة بنفسك


showing:
1. cranium
2. atlas vertebra
3. axis vertebra
4. clavicle
5. thoracic vertebra
6. humerus
7. pelvic bone
8. lumbar vertebra
9. cervical vertebra
10. radius bone
11. ulna bone
12. scaphoid bone
13. metacarpal bones
14. phalanges of the fingers
15. saddle joint of the thumb
16. sacral vertebrae
17. coccys vertebra
18. head of femur
19. femur bone
20. patella
21. tibia bone
22. fibula bone
23. metatarsal-phalangeal joint
24. calcaneus bone
Illustration provided by: Rolin Graphics


 In this chapter we will introduce the  bones of skull and their topographic relations to each other. With the exception of
 Mandibula
 (the lower jaw), each skull- bone is connected by tight immovable joints to the bones of the neighborhood. The areas of contact between two bones are called sutures (
Suturae
), which represent thin junctions between the irregular interlocking edges of adjacent skull bones. In adults
Suturae
 consist of tight connective tissue. We will use many different views in this chapter to show all skull structures. To understand the views it is important to know, which position or orientation is defined as the standard. To set up a standard nomenclature for orientations of skulls in anatomy a horizontal plane was defined in Frankfort more than hundred years ago. The
 Frankfort Horizontal plane
 is defined by tree points: the bottom margin of the left eye cavity and the top margins of the external auditory  porus (see chapter 2.6. Os temporale) on both sides. Fig. 2.4.: Frankfort horizontal plane The standard anatomic perspectives are  parallel or perpendicular to this (Frankfort Horizontal) plane. Perspective Explanation  Norma frontalis View at the frontal outer surface of skull  Norma occipitalis View at the back (posterior) outer surface of skull  Norma lateralis View at the left or right outer surface of skull from side  Norma verticalis View at the top outer surface of skull  Norma basalis View at the inferior outer surface of skull Fig. 2.5.: Standard perspectives To describe all skull structures, it is also important to make some cuts through the skull and make the inner  parts visible. In this chapter we will use the standard perspectives and additional views to show most skull structures. We will focus on major and important structures to show their topographic relations to each other. Following the
Suturae
 as borders and using the knowledge of this chapter’s topography it should be easy for you to learn and to describe all bones of skull. For more detailed descriptions see the following chapters which deal with separate skull bones.
FH

 
 ATLAS OF HUMAN SKELETAL ANATOMY

J.ARTNER ET AL. 2002, WWW.JURAJARTNER.COM 5PAGE
Front view (
 Norma frontalis
) of the skull shows the bones of the facial skull (
Viscerocranium
) and the frontal  bone (
Os frontale
), which already  belongs to the
 Neurocranium
, at the top: The most prominent structures in this view are the frontal bone (
Os frontale
) at the top, the zygomatic arches laterally, the mandible (the lower jaw,
 Mandibula
) at the bottom, both orbital excavations (
Orbitae
) below the frontal  bone, the anterior nasal aperture (
 Apertura nasalis anterior 
,
 Apertura  piriformis
) located in the middle line  between both orbital cavities, and the dentition, which belongs to the upper (
 Maxilla
) and the lower jaw (
 Mandibula
). The frontal bone
 
(
Os frontale
) articulates downwards (on both sides) with the nasal bones (
Ossa nasalia,  sing. Os nasale
), more lateral with
 Maxillae
, the lacrimal bones (
Ossa lacrimalia, sing.
 
Os lacrimale
) and with the zygomatic bones (
Ossa  zygomatica, sing.
 
Os zygomaticum
).
Os frontale
 and
Ossa nasalia
 are  joined to one another by the almost horizontal frontonasal suture (
Sutura  frontonasalis
). The frontomaxillar suture (
Sutura frontomaxillaris
) unites the upper jaw (Maxilla) with the frontal bone on both sides of the frontonasal connection (suture). The lateral arched parts of
Os frontale
 have contact to
Os zygomaticum
. Both  bones form together with the upper  parts of
 Maxilla
 the exterior margins of the eye cavity (orbital cavity or
Orbita
) on both sides (see Fig.2.7.: Orbita). To avoid an information overload we will describe the orbital structures later in separate illustrations. At this moment it is only important to note, that the above mentioned bones extend into the orbital interior, where they form in complex connections with four other bones (Os lacrimale, Os ethmoidale, Os sphenoidale, Os  palatinum) the pyramidal orbital cavities. Fig. 2.6.: Norma frontalis of skull Os frontale (1), Os nasale (2), Maxilla (3), Os zygomaticum (4), Mandibula (5), Orbita (6), Apertura nasalis ant. (7) The two nasal bones which form the  bony bridge of the nose are united by the vertical internasal suture (
Sutura internasalis
) in the midline. The anterior nasal aperture (
 Apertura nasalis anterior
or 
 Apertura  piriformis
) is located approximately in the middle of the facial cranium, below  both nasal bones (
Ossa nasalia
) and  between both
 Maxillae
. Divided in the middle by the nasal septum it forms the entrance into the bony nasal cavity with visible nasal shells (
Conchae
) and nasal septum (
Septum nasi
) within. The upper row of dentition (teeth)  belongs to both
 Maxillae
, which are separated by
Sutura intermaxillaris
 under the nasal aperture. The lower row of dentition belongs to the lower  jaw (
 Mandibula
), which is the only movable bone of skull (if the small auditory ossicles of the middle- ear are not counted).
1 2 3 4 5 6 7


 
 ATLAS OF HUMAN SKELETAL ANATOMY

J.ARTNER ET AL. 2002, WWW.JURAJARTNER.COM 6PAGE
Fig. 2.7.: Left Orbita Os frontale (1), Maxilla (2) and Os zygomaticum (3) form the exterior margins, with Sutura frontomaxillaris (a), frontozygomatica (b) and zygo-maticomaxillaris (c) between them. Parts of Os sphenoidale (4), Os lacrimale (6), Os palatinum (7) and Os ethmoidale (5) form together with the already described bones the bottom of Orbita, separated by Sutura frontoethmoidalis (e), sphenofrontalis (d), sphenozygomatica (f), zygo-maticomaxillaris (c), ethmoido-maxillaris, frontolacrimalis, palato-maxillaris and palatoethmoidalis. Two large apertures can be seen at the  bottom of the orbital cavity: Fissura orbitalis superior (Fs) connects the orbital cavity with the internal cranial cavity, passed by Nervus ophthalmicus, occulomotorius, trochlearis, Nervus abducens and Vena ophthalmica superior. Fissura orbitalis inferior (Fi), located between Os sphenoidale and the upper orbital part of Maxilla is passed by Nervus zygomaticus, Nervus infraorbitalis and their corresponding vessels



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المزيد من كمال الاجسام في مكتبة كمال الاجسام , المزيد من اللياقة البدنية في مكتبة اللياقة البدنية , المزيد من فن الدفاع عن النفس في مكتبة فن الدفاع عن النفس , المزيد من الصحة العامة في مكتبة الصحة العامة , المزيد من كتب الرجيم والدايت العربية في مكتبة كتب الرجيم والدايت العربية , المزيد من الصحة للجميع في مكتبة الصحة للجميع , المزيد من كتب ريجيم باللغة الاجليزية في مكتبة كتب ريجيم باللغة الاجليزية
عرض كل كتب اللياقة البدنية والصحة العامة ..
اقرأ المزيد في مكتبة كتب تقنية , اقرأ المزيد في مكتبة كتب إسلامية , اقرأ المزيد في مكتبة كتب الهندسة و التكنولوجيا , اقرأ المزيد في مكتبة كتب التنمية البشرية , اقرأ المزيد في مكتبة الكتب التعليمية , اقرأ المزيد في مكتبة كتب التاريخ , اقرأ المزيد في مكتبة الطفل قصص و مجلات , اقرأ المزيد في مكتبة القصص و الروايات و المجلات , اقرأ المزيد في مكتبة كتب تعلم اللغات , اقرأ المزيد في مكتبة الكتب و الموسوعات العامة , اقرأ المزيد في مكتبة كتب الطب , اقرأ المزيد في مكتبة كتب الأدب , اقرأ المزيد في مكتبة كتب اللياقة البدنية والصحة العامة , اقرأ المزيد في مكتبة كتب الروايات الأجنبية والعالمية , اقرأ المزيد في مكتبة كتب علوم سياسية و قانونية , اقرأ المزيد في مكتبة الكتب الغير مصنّفة , اقرأ المزيد في مكتبة كتب الطبخ و الديكور , اقرأ المزيد في مكتبة كتب المعاجم و اللغات , اقرأ المزيد في مكتبة كتب علوم عسكرية و قانون دولي
جميع مكتبات الكتب ..